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jacked guy barcurlingTyramine (4-hydroxyphenethylamine) is similar in structure to the amino acid tyrosine (4-hydroxy-phenylalanine). Tyrosine actually converts to some degree to tyramine in the body. Tyramine is found in many different foods in small amounts.

Tyramine is considered a stimulant as it has the ability to increase circulating norepinephrine (adrenaline) levels, and it may also increase dopamine levels. Tyramine supplementation should have the effects of increasing energy levels, reducing appetite, and increasing the breakdown of body fat. An additional effect of tyramine is that it may increase the uptake of glucose by the muscles. This should lower blood glucose levels and reduce insulin spikes, creating an environment conducive to fat loss. Something interesting to note about tyramine is that it can convert to octopamine, so some of the effects of tyramine may be attributable to not only the tyramine itself but also its conversion to octopamine.

Side effect associated with tyramine will be similar to those of most other stimulants. Side effects may include high blood pressure or headaches in those who are sensitive to these effects. Tyramine is often included in fat burning and energy supplements for its ability to increase energy and support fat loss.

References

1. Scriven AJ, Dollery CT, Murphy MB, Macquin I, & Brown MJ. (1983). Blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine concentrations after endogenous norepinephrine release by tyramine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 33(6), 710-6.

2. Cohn JN. (1965). COMPARATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF TYRAMINE, EPHEDRINE, AND NOREPINEPHRINE IN MAN. Circulation Research. 16, 174-82.

3. Neff NH, Tozer TN, Hammer W, & Brodie BB. (1965). Kinetics of release of norepinephrine by tyramine. Life Sciences. 4(19), 1869-75.

4. Hiroi T, Imaoka S, & Funae Y. (1998). Dopamine formation from tyramine by CYP2D6. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 249(3), 838-43.

5. Lemberger L, Kuntzman R, Conney AH, & Burns JJ. (1965). Metabolism of tyramine to dopamine by liver microsomes. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 150(2), 292-7.

6. Waldeck B. (1971). Formation of 14 C-octopamine from 14 C-tyramine in the mouse: a dose dependent relationship. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 82(4), 571-3.

7. Morin N, Visentin V, Calise D, Marti L, Zorzano A, Testar X, Valet P, Fischer Y, & Carpene C. (2002). Tyramine stimulates glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues in vitro and in vivo via its oxidation by amine oxidases. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 303(3), 1238-47.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Cassie is a chemistry major and national level bodybuilder. Questions or comments? Talk to Cassie on the FORUM or on FACEBOOK.

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